Tyrosine is a non-essential aromatic amino acid that can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid phenylalanine. Through a biochemical process called hydroxylation, phenylalanine is converted into tyrosine. This process is catalyzed by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which is present in the liver. Therefore, tyrosine can enter the body either indirectly through the conversion of phenylalanine-rich foods or directly through the consumption of tyrosine-rich foods. Numerous vegan foods provide tyrosine, as shown in the tyrosine table above.
Tyrosine is used as a building block for the synthesis of proteins because it belongs to the proteinogenic amino acids. Proteins are needed for tissue growth and repair, enzyme and hormone formation, as well as for the immune system.
Tyrosine is a precursor for the production of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and adrenaline. These neurotransmitters are responsible for transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain and the body. For example, mood, motivation, and reward are regulated by dopamine, while norepinephrine and adrenaline prepare the body for stress situations and influence the response to them.
In addition, tyrosine is involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones such as thyroxine. The functions of these hormones include the regulation of metabolism, body temperature, energy balance, and growth.
Furthermore, tyrosine is needed for the production of melanin, which is responsible for the coloring of the skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin protects the skin from harmful UV rays.
What's The Difference Between L-Tyrosine And Tyrosine?
L-tyrosine and tyrosine are often used interchangeably and refer to the same amino acid. Since only L-tyrosine is typically used in the body, it is usually the L-tyrosine that is meant.
The term L-tyrosine simply refers to the specific enantiomeric form of tyrosine, namely the left-turning enantiomer. The right-turning counterpart is D-tyrosine. It has the same chemical composition as L-tyrosine but a mirror-image spatial arrangement.
Is There A Higher Demand?
Although the body can synthesize tyrosine itself, there may be certain situations or health conditions where the demand for tyrosine is higher. The list provides some examples:
- Under stress conditions, an increased production of stress hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline may be required. Since tyrosine is a precursor for the synthesis of these hormones, the demand for tyrosine may be increased.
- Intense physical activities such as sports and strength training can also increase the demand, as tyrosine is used for energy production and muscle building.
- Neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease or depression may involve impaired dopamine function. To support dopamine production, there may be a need for additional tyrosine.
- During pregnancy and lactation, the demand for amino acids, including tyrosine, increases due to the elevated protein requirement for fetal growth and development or for the nursing baby.
- Chronic illnesses such as liver disease or kidney insufficiency can increase the demand for tyrosine, as protein processing in the body may be impaired.
Tyrosine-rich Foods - Occurrence
Tyrosine is found in many protein-rich foods. Vegan nutrition offers numerous tyrosine-rich foods. The list reveals foods with higher tyrosine content based on groups:
- Legumes contain a significant amount of tyrosine. Black beans, green beans, peanuts, kidney beans, chickpeas, lentils, and green peas are rich in the amino acid, according to the table. Soybeans, tofu, and tempeh are protein-rich foods that also contain a lot of tyrosine.
- Nuts and seeds also serve as excellent sources of tyrosine. Almonds, walnuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pistachios, pecans, and Brazil nuts contain a lot of nut protein including tyrosine. Additionally, seeds and kernels such as sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, flaxseeds, hemp seeds, pine nuts, and poppy seeds have a high tyrosine content.
- Whole grains such as oatmeal, quinoa, millet, buckwheat, amaranth, barley, brown rice, spelt, wheat, rye, and corn also have higher levels of tyrosine. Utilize this table for tyrosine-rich grains.
- Vegetables don't contain a lot of tyrosine, according to the table. These include broccoli, spinach, kale, celery, zucchini, sweet potatoes, eggplants, and carrots.
- Among fruits, jackfruits, starfruits, avocados, bananas, apricots, pears, cranberries, strawberries, oranges, and mangoes are still the best sources of tyrosine, according to our fruit table.
- Algae such as nori, wakame, dulse, and spirulina are rich in tyrosine.
- Certain spices and herbs, especially in dried form, are rich in tyrosine. Good examples are basil, parsley, thyme, oregano, rosemary, turmeric, paprika powder, cumin, and coriander.
Fresh foods tend to contain more nutrients. Therefore, choose fresh and high-quality products whenever possible. Avoid heavily processed foods, as they often contain fewer nutrients.
Vegan Tyrosine Diet
You can incorporate tyrosine into your diet in various ways. Here are a few recipe ideas on how to include tyrosine-rich foods:
- Oatmeal Banana Smoothie: Blend oats, banana, almond milk, and a teaspoon of almond butter to make a smoothie.
- Quinoa Salad with Avocado: Combine cooked quinoa, avocado, tomatoes, cucumbers, and fresh herbs for a healthy, protein-rich salad.
- Red Lentil Soup: Cook red lentils with vegetable broth, onions, carrots, and celery for a protein-rich soup.
- Tofu Scramble: Sauté diced tofu with bell peppers, onions, and turmeric to prepare a delicious vegan scramble.
- Spinach Avocado Salad with Roasted Nuts: Mix fresh spinach, avocado, roasted almonds or walnuts, and add a light vinaigrette.
- Black Bean Burgers: Purée black beans, onions, garlic, and spices into a mixture, shape into patties, and fry them in a pan.
- Vegan Sushi Rolls: Wrap nori seaweed sheets around rice, cucumbers, carrots, and avocado to prepare healthy sushi rolls.
- Veggie Noodle Stir-Fry: Sauté zucchini noodles, broccoli, bell peppers, and mushrooms in a pan and season them with soy sauce or another vegan sauce of your choice.
- Lentil Bolognese: Cook lentils with tomato sauce, onions, garlic, and spices to create a hearty Bolognese sauce.
- Vegan Chili sin Carne: Cook a mixture of kidney beans, black beans, tomatoes, onions, garlic, and spices.